“I also gave them My Sabbaths to serve as a sign between Me and them, so they will know that I am Yahweh who sets them apart as holy.” Ezekiel 20:12-17 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB) (Israel is the object of God’s gift of holiness. The sabbath is an eternal sign between God and the Jews, per Exodus 31:12-17.)
Exodus 31:12-17 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
Observing the Sabbath
12 The Lord said to Moses: 13 “Tell the Israelites: You must observe My Sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, so that you will know that I am Yahweh who sets you apart. 14 Observe the Sabbath, for it is holy to you….” 16 The Israelites must observe the Sabbath, celebrating it throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant. 17 It is a sign forever between Me and the Israelites, for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, but on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed.”
Scriptures in this study are taken from the Holman Christian Standard Bible, and gathered from Bible Gateway. Notes that are taken from the MacArthur Study Bible, are also gathered from Bible Gateway. Everyone should own a MacArthur Study Bible. The Bible Gateway link is https://www.biblegateway.com/ Bible Gateway has basic and expanded (Bible Gateway Plus) study notes. Whenever scripture passages are lengthy, in this study, a link will be provided to show those verses.
Introduction To Joel Teaching
The prophecies of Joel are organized in the following order: future, history, future, history, and future. Past events relate to the Assyrian and Babylonian invasions of Israel, as well as to the atrocities that came upon Israel by the Greeks under the hand of Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.). The Assyrians invaded the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. Those ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, also known as Israel and Samaria, were deported to Assyria. Soon after the deportation of the Jews from their homeland, the Assyrians began moving pagans into those vacated Jewish lands. Those northern tribes of deported Jews are often known as “the lost tribes of Israel.” https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/ask-the-expert-lost-tribes/
The northern tribes were dispersed, and became absorbed into the surrounding pagan cultures. There was a small, nearly invisible, remnant that continued to maintain a form of Jewish identity, many of whom migrated south into the Kingdom of Judah. As a pure Jewish entity, the lost tribes never returned to their covenant land. The Babylonians invaded the Southern Kingdom of Israel in 586 B.C., and deported those Jews to Babylon. Those tribes of Judah and Benjamin had occupied the land that surrounds Jerusalem, which was known as Judah. The united empire of Media-Persia conquered Babylon in 539 B.C. In 538 B.C., the Persian King Cyrus allowed the captive Jews of the Southern Kingdom of Israel/Judah to return to their covenant home land. However, most of those Jews chose to remain in Persia. It is from that time forward (538 B.C.) that the prophecies of Joel, which lead to the final restoration of Israel, began to develop. However, all of prophecy began after the fall of Adam and Eve (Genesis 3:15), and will find its completion in the new heavens, new earth and new Jerusalem (Revelation 21:1-5).
Of key significance in the study of Joel is the order of dates. Per the date of the Book Of Joel (835 B.C., Ryrie Study Bible), the prophecies that are identified as being historic, “to us,” were actually futuristic to the prophet Joel. For instance, Joel’s prophecy of the Assyrian invasion of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was given 113 years prior to the 722 B.C. invasion. Additionally, Joel’s prophecy of the Babylonian invasion of the Southern Kingdom was given 249 years prior to the 586 B.C. invasion. Also, the prophecy that dealt with Alexander The Great, of the Greek Empire, was given 499 years prior to the reign of that Jewish oppressor, whose reign lasted from 336 B.C. to 323 B.C. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gkru/hd_gkru.htm The time until the final restoration of Israel in the Millennium is yet unknown. But, that teaching is still pertinent to the prophetic teaching of Joel.
All too often sermons, and other teachings, have no bearing on the prophecies that are the main thrust of Joel’s prophecy. More often than not, the teachings of Joel are put in a context of daily life in the church, with no mention being made of the facts of prophecy. It is because of such a lack of proper teaching of Joel, and other books of prophecy, that most Christians are biblically ignorant of most prophetic facts.
The Scofield Study Bible divides the Book of Joel into three parts:
I. The Present Chastisement And Its Removal (Joel 1:1-2:27).
II. The Promise Of The Spirit (Joel 2:28-29).
III. The Future Deliverance In The Coming Day Of The Lord (Joel 2:30-3:21).
The following sources of information are useful in the study of the Book of Joel.
Dr. David E. Malick
I. TITLE OF THE BOOK
A. In Hebrew the title comes of the prophetic author, lway , the combination of two names of God–Yahweh & Elohim. The affirmation is probably “Yahweh is God.” This is the reverse of Elijah (“God is Yahweh”)
B. In Greek the title is simply a transliteration of the Hebrew IWHL
II. AUTHOR: Joel
A. Nothing is know about Joel other than his being the son of Pethuel (who is also unknown) 1:1
B. He was from Judah
C. Perhaps references to Jerusalem indicate that he was from Jerusalem
The above excerpt comes from an article that was written by Dr. David E. Malick
About David Malick bio https://bible.org/users/david-malick
Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Deceased
Excerpts from Ryrie Study Bible
Book Of Joel
Date 835 B.C.
The Day Of The Lord – “The Day of the Lord, the major theme of Joel’s prophecy, involves God’s special intervention in the affairs of human history.”
About Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Deceased
Dr. John F. Walvoord, Deceased
Excerpts from Every Prophecy of the Bible, by Dr. John F. Walvoord
About Dr. John F. Walvoord, Deceased https://bible.org/users/john-f-walvoord
About source document
The Day Of The Lord – The Day Of the Lord may refer to a specific day, or to an extended period of time. Such a time-frame extends from the Rapture of the Church, to the end of the millennial kingdom (1 Thessalonians 5:1-9; 2 Peter 3:10-13).
The prophecies of Joel will be discussed as they relate to events of the past, or to those that will be reveled in the future. Prophecy scriptures will be grouped in this study, by History or Future.
Joel 2:1-11 The Day Of The Lord – This was fulfilled in the Assyrian Captivity (722 B.C., 2 Kings 17:1-6).
Joel 2:12-17 The Day Of The Lord – This was fulfilled after the Babylonian Captivity. (586 B.C. 2 Kings 24:1-25:11). https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=joel+2%3A12-17&version=HCSB
Joel 3:4-8 This prophecy was fulfilled by Alexander The Great, in the fourth century B.C.
Prophecies that are futuristic will be discussed in the next post.
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