Judges 4-7

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I. Video. Why Israel Introduction | 02 | God’s covenants with Israel. Jan 28, 2016. Christians for Israel International.

II. This article discusses three judges of Israel, whom are Deborah, Barak and Gideon. The relationship of these Judges with God is the key subject of study. This is not a church-age study, although there are principles that can be applied to the church of Christ. Contained within this article is also a study of the Names of God, to include spelling and the placement of upper and lower case letters. We will touch on Bible translations, as well as the letter “J.” It is important to have a zeal for God’s Word, however, scripture correctness should always be paramount.

III. It is easy to see that many Christians are ignorant of the facts of the Old Testament. The reason for such ignorance is simple; the Old Testament teaching is limited, and poorly taught. The subject people in this article are Jews, and the setting is Jewish. The account of the Jews (not a story) in this article is about the dealings of God with His chosen people, Israel (Deu 14:2). All too often, pastors and teachers make many Old Testament studies into studies of the church, and omit the detailed teachings that relate to scripture context, of which is important in understanding God’s Word. Remember that God is traveling with the Israelites, and not with anyone else. If we make a decision to understand each chapter that we read from the Old Testament, it will help us to understand the relationship of God and the Jews during the time of Tribulation, as well as that in the Kingdom age, the Millennium, and the eternal state. In regard to context, consider 2 Chronicles 7:14, which relates to God and the nation of Israel, and to no one else in our world (context, 2 Chr 7:8-18). Also Ezek 34:26, “showers of blessing,” is greatly misunderstood; we sing a song by that title, with a church inferred meaning. However, the context of “showers of blessing” is that of Israel during the Kingdom Age.

IV. As we are studying any passage of scripture, we should attempt to gain an understanding of the verses that we are reading. Should we follow cross-references that lead us elsewhere in the Bible? Most definitely, we should check out verses in the other books in the Old and New Testaments. As we pursue our study of Israel in the Old Testament scriptures, we will naturally be led to other areas of study about Jews, especially about Israel in the Tribulation, the Kingdom Age, and the Eternal State.

V. Judges 4:4-6 (NASB) Deborah and Barak. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=JUDGES+4%3A1-24&version=NASB

A. Opening Comment. MacArthur Study Bible. 4:4 Deborah, a prophetess. She was an unusual woman of wisdom and influence who did the tasks of a judge, except for military leadership…. Deborah’s rise to such a role is the exception in the book because of Barak’s failure to show the courage to lead courageously (vv. 8, 14). God rebuked his cowardice by the pledge that a woman would slay Sisera (v. 9). https://www.oneplace.com/ministries/grace-to-you/listen/

B. 4 Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time. 5 She used to sit under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim; and the sons of Israel came up to her for judgment. 6 Now she sent and summoned Barak the son of Abinoam from Kedesh-naphtali, and said to him, “Behold, the LORD, the God of Israel, has commanded, ‘Go and march to Mount Tabor, and take with you ten thousand men from the sons of Naphtali and from the sons of Zebulun.

C. God in the verses.

1. vs 6 “the LORD, the God of Israel.” (“LORD,” YHWH…Yah·weh, 3068). (“God,” Elohim, 430). Notice the upper and lower case of letters of “LORD and God.”

2. The KJV and NKJV state in verse 6, “the LORD God of Israel.” The NASB states “the LORD, the God of Israel.” The NASB is correct: https://biblehub.com/lexicon/judges/4-6.htm Consider also Rev 17:5. The KJV and NKJV state, “MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT.” NASB states, “a mystery, BABYLON THE GREAT; ” the NASB is correct https://biblehub.com/lexicon/revelation/17-5.htm

3. Names Of God To Consider (Yahweh; Elohim).

a. 1. “LORD,” YHWH (notice all capital letters). Re: Genesis 2:4, [the “LORD,” YHWH (probably pronounced Yahweh), is the most significant name for God in the OT. It has a two-fold meaning: the active, self-existent One (since the word is connected with the verb meaning “to be,” Ex 3:14); and Israel’s Redeemer (Ex 6:6). The name is especially associated with God’s holiness (Lev 11:44-45), His hatred of sin (Gen 6:3-7), and His gracious provision of redemption (Isa 53:1, 5, 6, 10).] (Ryrie Study Bible..Gen 2:4 note).

b. 2. “God,” Elohim, pronounced “el-o-heem.’ Re: Genesis 1:1. [Elohim, a generic term for deity, as well as a proper name for the true God. It is used of pagan gods (Gen 31:30), angels (Ps 8.5), men ((Ps 82:6), and judges (Ex 21:6), though most frequently of the true God. Its basic meaning is “strong one, mighty leader, supreme Deity.” The form of the word is plural, indicating plentitude of power and majesty, and allowing for the NT revelation of the triunity of the Godhead.).] (Ryrie Study Bible…1:1 note).

4. Comment: Every Prophecy Of The Bible, Pg 45, Dr. John F. Walvoord (Deceased). Deborah and Barak, fourth and fifth judges of Israel, were promised victory over Siseria. This prophecy was fulfilled and Sisteria killed (vs 12-24).
https://www.thriftbooks.com/a/john-f-walvoord/203232/

VI. Judges 6:11-24 (NASB) The Call Of Gideon. As you red the following verses, pay close attention to the names of God. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=JUDGES+6%3A11-24&version=NASB

A. Opening Comment: MacArthur Study Bible Note. 6:1 Midian. These wandering herdsmen from E of the Red Sea had been dealt a severe blow in Moses’ time (Num. 31:1–18) and still resented the Israelites. They became the worst scourge yet to afflict Israel.
https://www.oneplace.com/ministries/grace-to-you/listen/

1. 11 Then the angel of the LORD came and sat under the oak that was in Ophrah, which belonged to Joash the Abiezrite as his son Gideon was beating out wheat in the wine press in order to save it from the Midianites. 12 The angel of the LORD appeared to him and said to him, “The LORD is with you, O valiant warrior.” 13 Then Gideon said to him, “O my lord, if the LORD is with us, why then has all this happened to us? And where are all His miracles which our fathers told us about, saying, ‘Did not the LORD bring us up from Egypt?’ But now the LORD has abandoned us and given us into the hand of Midian.” 14 The LORD looked at him and said, “Go in this your strength and deliver Israel from the hand of Midian. Have I not sent you?” 15 He said to Him, “O Lord, how shall I deliver Israel? Behold, my family is the least in Manasseh, and I am the youngest in my father’s house.” 16 But the LORD said to him, “Surely I will be with you, and you shall defeat Midian as one man.” 17 So Gideon said to Him, “If now I have found favor in Your sight, then show me a sign that it is You who speak with me. 18 “Please do not depart from here, until I come back to You, and bring out my offering and lay it before You.” And He said, “I will remain until you return.”

2. 19 Then Gideon went in and prepared a young goat and unleavened bread from an ephah of flour; he put the meat in a basket and the broth in a pot, and brought them out to him under the oak and presented them. 20 The angel of God said to him, “Take the meat and the unleavened bread and lay them on this rock, and pour out the broth.” And he did so. 21 Then the angel of the LORD put out the end of the staff that was in his hand and touched the meat and the unleavened bread; and fire sprang up from the rock and consumed the meat and the unleavened bread. Then the angel of the LORD vanished from his sight. 22 When Gideon saw that he was the angel of the LORD, he said, “Alas, O Lord GOD! For now I have seen the angel of the LORD face to face.” 23 The LORD said to him, “Peace to you, do not fear; you shall not die.” 24 Then Gideon built an altar there to the LORD and named it The LORD is Peace. To this day it is still in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.

B. God in the verses.

1. vs 11, 21, 22 “the angel of the LORD.” A theophany. Judges 2:1: The LORD Himself. Genesis 16:9: A self-manifestation of God. He here speaks as God, identifies Himself with God, and claims to exercise the prerogatives of God. Because the angel of the LORD ceases to appear after the incarnation, it is often inferred that the angel of the LORD in the OT is a preincarnate appearance of the second person of the trinity. (Ryrie Study Bible).

2. vs 15 “O Lord: “Adonai” (Notice lower case letters) Master, lord, sovereign (Gen 15:2) and is equivalent to the Greek “kurios.” (Ryrie Study Bible) “Kuios:” Mt 1:22 “properly, a person exercising absolute ownership rights; lord (Lord)”: https://biblehub.com/greek/2962.htm

3. vs 20 The angel of God. Angel (mal·’ach) (4397), a messenger of God (Elohim) 430. https://biblehub.com/lexicon/judges/6-20.htm

4. vs 22 O’Lord God. Lord: Adonai (136) (See Lower case letters); God: YHWH, Yahweh https://biblehub.com/lexicon/judges/6-22.htm

5. vs 23, 24 LORD YWHW Yahweh 3068 (See all upper case letters) https://biblehub.com/lexicon/judges/6-23.htm https://biblehub.com/lexicon/judges/6-24.htm

C. Comment: Every Prophecy Of The Bible, Pg 45, Dr. John F. Walvoord (Deceased). Scriptures record God’s selection of Gideon as a judge over Israel. In verse 14 it was recorded, “The LORD turned to him [Gideon] and said, ‘Go in the strength you have and save Israel out of Midian’s hand. Am I not sending you?'” https://www.thriftbooks.com/a/john-f-walvoord/203232/

VII. Judges 7:1-25 (NASB) Gideon’s 300 Chosen Men. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Judges+7%3A1-25&version=NASB

A. Opening Comment. MacArthur Study Bibe. 7:2 The people…are too many. Those of faith, though inadequate by human weakness, gain victory only through God’s power (cf. 2 Cor. 3:5; 4:7; 12:7–9). Three hundred men win against an incredible Midianite host (Judg. 7:7, 16–25). God gains the glory by making the outcome conspicuously His act, and no sinful pride is cultivated.
https://www.oneplace.com/ministries/grace-to-you/listen/

B. 2 The LORD said to Gideon, “The people who are with you are too many for Me to give Midian into their hands, for Israel would become boastful, saying, ‘My own power has delivered me.’

C. God in the verses.

1. 2 The “LORD.” YHWH Yahweh 3068 https://biblehub.com/lexicon/judges/7-2.htm

2. Comment: Every Prophecy Of The Bible, Pg 45, Dr. John F. Walvoord (Deceased). The 300 warriors chosen by God attained a decisive victory over Midian, fulfilling the prophecy literally. https://www.thriftbooks.com/a/john-f-walvoord/203232/

VIII. Considering: Yahweh – Jehovah – Yeshua – Jesus

A. The name of Yahweh (3068, Strong’s Concordance) is shown in reference documents as being YHWH and YHVH. There is no letter “J” in either of the Hebrew or Greek alphabets. We will consider Jehovah and Jesus.

1. Yahweh, the god of the Israelites, whose name was revealed to Moses as four Hebrew consonants (YHWH) called the tetragrammaton.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Yahweh

2. For Jewish people YHVH is the most holy name of God, as written in the ancient Hebrew language.
https://simple.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/YHWH

3. JEHOVAH (Yahweh), in the Bible, the God of Israel. “Jehovah” is a modern mispronunciation of the Hebrew name
https://en.m.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Jehovah

B. There is no ‘J’ in Hebrew. In English, the letters I and J both had the same sound for a long time, and before that, J didn’t exist.
https://www.quora.com/Did-the-letter-J-exist-in-the-Hebrew-alphabet

C. Was the letter J in the Bible?

1. Gian Trissino identified the Greek “Iesus” (a translation of the Hebrew “Yeshua”) as the Modern English “Jesus”, thus the current phoneme for “J” was born. … Even in the KJV 1611 year bible, there are NO letter J’s AT ALL in that bible. 500 years ago the letter “J” did not exist in any language on this earth, so NO letter “J” 500 years ago, and NO name “Jesus” 2,000 years ago. The letter “J” is a fairly recent addition to the alphabet (around the 1500’s), and research / historical data prove it’s IMPOSSIBLE for the names JESUS or JeHoVaH to even have been on the planet back in the ancient times.
https://warriorsoftheruwach.com/the-letter-j

2. Our Lord and Christ (Acts 2:36) was never addressed as “Jesus” by anyone when He was on this earth. Consider the Greek and Hebrew below. Notice that there is no letter “J” written in the Name of our Lord.

3. Matthew 1:16 Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
16 Ya‘akov was the father of Yosef the husband of Miryam,
from whom was born the Yeshua who was called the Messiah.

4. Mattityahu 1:16 Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)
16 Yaakov fathered Yosef, the baal (husband) of Miryam, from whom was born Yehoshua, who is called Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach. [Yochanan 1:49]

D. Strong’s Concordance https://biblehub.com/greek/2424.htm

1. 2424. Iésous. Greek: Ἰησοῦς (iēsous). Jesus is the transliteration of the Hebrew term, 3091 /Lṓt (“Yehoshua”/Jehoshua, contracted to “Joshua”) which means “Yahweh saves” (or “Yahweh is salvation”). Notice that Jesus is a transliteration, and not a translation.

2. 3091. of Hebrew origin Yehoshua, “the LORD is salvation,”

3. Notice that in the Greek spelling of Iésous there is no letter J, therefore “Jesus” is not the correct spelling, or pronunciation, of our Lord’s Name.

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