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Part 1. Introduction.
I. Video Information. 1 Kings -This video will provide a quick overview of the first book of Kings. Its video details can be found at the bottom of this page.
II. Lesson Overview.
A. The author of 1 Kings was Jeremiah. The date of the writing was ca., 550 b.c.
B. The timeline for this study will be from 1010 B.C. until 876 B.C., (Ryrie Study Bible, Copyright 1986). The outline of 1 Kings is taken from the same Ryrie Study Bible.
C. Key events of 1 Kings are: David becomes king of Judah, 1010 B.C. David becomes king over all Israel, 1003 b.c. Solomon born, 991 B.C. Solomon becomes king, 970 B.C. Temple completed, 959 B.C. Rehoboam becomes king of Judah, 931 B.C. Jeroboam becomes king of Israel, 931 B.C. King Shishak of Egypt attacks Jerusalem, 925 B.C. Asa becomes king of Judah, 911 B.C. Elijah begins prophetic ministry, 874 B.C. Ahab becomes king of Israel, 874 B.C. Jehoshaphat becomes king of Judah, 873 B.C.
D. When the Temple in Jerusalem was completed and dedicated, significant events of Holiness occurred.
1. 1 Kings 8:10-11. God’s Holy Spirit was so strong that the priests could not stand, “for the glory of the Lord filled the house of the LORD” (Ex 40:34-35; 2 Chron 7:1-2).
2. I Kings 8:12. Solomon recognized the cloud as the symbol of God’s presence and favor (Ex 19:9; Lev 16:2).
3. Solomon’s extreme reverence to God in the Temple dedication as he prayed, and in his posture of prayer (1 Kings 8:61, 2 Chron 6:1-7:3).
a. 1 Kings 8:22-23. 22 Then Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of all the assembly of Israel and spread out his hands toward heaven. 23 He said, “O LORD, the God of Israel, there is no God like You in heaven above or on earth beneath, keeping covenant and showing lovingkindness to Your servants who walk before You with all their heart (NASB).
b. 1 Kings 8:54-56. 54 When Solomon had finished praying this entire prayer and supplication to the LORD, he arose from before the altar of the LORD, from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread toward heaven. 55 And he stood and blessed all the assembly of Israel with a loud voice, saying: 56“Blessed be the LORD, who has given rest to His people Israel, according to all that He promised; not one word has failed of all His good promise, which He promised through Moses His servant (NASB).
c. 1 Kings 8:65. The dedication of the Temple lasted “seven days” and the the Feast of Booths another seven days. See 2 Chron 7:9-10. (mine: the Feast of Booths is the same event as the Feast of Tabernacles; “God tabernacled with His people, Israel. During the Kingdom Age of the Millennium, God will also Tabernacle with His people (all saved Jews and Gentiles) through Christ who will be ruling from Jerusalem, Isa 2:1-4).
d. 1 Kings 9:25. Once the temple had been built, Solomon’s practice of sacrificing to God at the various high places ceased (cf. 3:2–4). He kept Israel’s 3 great annual feasts, Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, and Tabernacles, at the temple in Jerusalem. (MacArthur Study Bible). Deut 16:16, “Three times in a year all your males shall appear before the LORD your God in the place which He chooses, at the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and at the Feast of Weeks, and at the Feast of Booths, and they shall not appear before the LORD empty-handed.
E. Jeroboam and Rehoboam are key figures in this study. They must be discussed in order to understand their individual significance in Israel after the death of Solomon in approximately 930 B.C.
1. How do we distinguish between Jeroboam and Rehoboam? They were not brothers. Jeroboam was the son of Nebat; Rehoboam was the son of King Solomon. 1 Kings 11:26-28 describes the relationship between Solomon and Jeroboam, in that Jeroboam was appointed over all the forced labor of the house of Joseph, which included the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh (The Bible Knowledge Commentary – Old Testament).
2. Jeroboam “jumped;” Rehoboam “remained.” Jeroboam “jumped north” from Jerusalem with 10 tribes, and ruled over the northern kingdom, into an area that became known as Ephraim, Israel, and Samaria; they intermarried with pagans. Rehoboam “remained” in Jerusalem, and ruled over the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, which became known as Judah, and the southern kingdom. The northern kingdom was destroyed by the Assyrians in 722 B.C. The southern kingdom was destroyed in 586 B.C. by the Babylonians.
Part 2. Supportive Information. Scofield Reference Notes. Bio can be found in the About Sources page of this site.
I. Book Overview – 1 Kings – by C.I. Scofield
A. Book Introduction – 1 Kings
1. First Kings records the death of David, the reign of Solomon, the building of the temple, death of Solomon, division of the kingdom under Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and the history of the two kingdoms to the reign of Jehoram over Judah, and Ahaziah over Samaria.
2. First Kings Includes the mighty ministry of Elijah.
3. The events recorded in First Kings cover a period of 118 years (Ussher).
B. Book Breakdown. The book is in six parts:
1. From the rebellion of Adonijah to the death of David, 1 Kings 1:1 to 1 Kings 2:11.
2. From the accession of Solomon to the dedication of the temple, 1 Kings 2:12 to 1 Kings 8:66.
3. From the division of the kingdom to the death of Jeroboam and Rehoboam, 1 Kings 12:1 to 1 Kings 14:31.
4. The kingdoms to the accession of Ahab, 1 Kings 15:1 to 1 Kings 16:28.
5. Accession of Ahab to his death, 1 Kings 16:29 to 1 Kings 22:40.
6. From the reign of Jehoshaphat to the accession of Jehoram over Judah, and Ahaziah over Samaria, 1 Kings 22:41-53.
Part 3. Lesson Outline.
I. The United Kingdom. 1:1-11:43.
A. The accession of Solomon. (2 Chron 1:1-7) 1:1-3:1.
1. The struggle for the succession. 1:1-53.
2. The final charge of David to Solomon. 2:1-12.
3. The purge initiated by Solomon. 2:13-46.
4. The marriage of Solomon. 3:1.
B. The wisdom of Solomon. 3:2-4:34.
1. Solomon’s request for wisdom. 3:2-15.
2. Solomon’s display of wisdom. 3:16-28.
3. Solomon’s administration. 4:1-28.
4. Solomon’s fame. 4:29-34.
C. The temple of Solomon. (2 Chron 2:1-7:22) 5:1-8:66.
1. Preparations for the Temple. 5:1-18.
2. Description and construction of the Temple. 6:1-38.
a. 6:1. The date is 967 B.C. and Ziv is the second month (April-May). On the relation of this date to the Exodus, see the Introduction to Exodus.
b. 6:14. This Temple stood until destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.
c. 6:16-17. “the most holy place” (Holy of Holies) occupied one-third of the interior space of the Temple, and the Holy Place two-thirds.
d. 6:19-20. “inner sanctuary.” The Holy of Holies. “altar” of incense.”
e. 6:31-35. Olivewood doors separated the Holy of Holies from the Holy Place (apparently there was also a curtain, 2 Chron 3:14), and the doors in the Temple proper matched them.
f. 6:38. Seven years later, in “Bul” (Oct-Nov), the Temple was completed.
3. Construction of other buildings. 7:1-12.
4. Furnishing the Temple. 7:13-51.
a. 7:46. Excavations have shown that this area (“Succoth” was E of the Jordan and just N of the Jabbok River) was a center of metallurgy.
b. 7:48-50. On the articles in the Tabernacle similar to these, see notes on Ex 25.
c. 7:51. “things dedicated.” Likely an enormous amount of spoils taken in wars.
5. Dedication of the Temple. 8:1-66.
a. 8:2. Eleven months after the completion of the Temple (6:38).
b. 8:9. See Heb 9:4, which refers to the contents of the ark when it stood in the Tabernacle and contained the law, Aaron’s rod and manna. Apparently the latter two items had been lost by this time. (Some think they were never placed in the ark, but alongside it; cf Ex 16:33-34; Num 17:10.)
c. 8:10-11. God’s Holy Spirit was so strong that the priests could not stand, “for the glory of the Lord filled the house of the LORD.”
c. 8:12. Solomon recognized the cloud as the symbol of God’s presence and favor (Ex 19:9; Lev 16:2).
d. 8:22. (mine). See the reverence of Solomon for God. “Then Solomon stood before the altar of the Lord in the presence of all the assembly of Israel and spread out his hands toward heaven.”
e. 8:23-53. Solomon’s great prayer. (mine: See 8:30, “Your people Israel.”)
f. 8:54-55. (mine: see the reverence of Solomon for God.)
D. The fame of Solomon. (2 Chron 8:1-9:28), 9:1-10:29.
1. His covenant with God. 9:1-9.
a. 9:6-7. As far as the Temple, and people, are concerned, it is clearly stated that it will be destroyed, and they will into captivity if they are unfaithful; but the Davidic dynasty will nut be put aside (Ps 89:30-37).
b. 9:8. “a heap of ruins.” The text is uncertain, though the meaning is that the revered Temple will be destroyed (2 Chron 7:21).
2. His gifts to Hiram. 9:10-14.
3. His subjects. 9:15-25.
a. 9:15. Megiddo. An important fortification controlling a pass between the plains of Esdraelon and Sharon and the site of the future battle of Armageddon. See note on Rev 16:16.
b. 9:25. “three times in a year.”I.e., the feasts of Unleavened Bread, Pentecost and Booths.
4. His navy. 9:26-28.
5. His visit from the queen of Sheba. 10:1-13.
6. His wealth. 10:14-29.
E. The downfall of Solomon. 11:1-43.
1. The reasons. 11:1-8.
2. The warning. 11:9-13.
a. 11:11. (mine: “I will surely tear the Kingdom from you. (See comments on 11:13.)
b. 11:12. (mine: “I will tear it out of the hand of your son. (See comments on 11:13.)
c. 11:13. “one tribe.” I.e., Judah, to which small Benjamin was indissolubly connected, for Jerusalem straddled the territory of both tribes (cf. 11:32 and 12:21). Simeon, the tribe S of Judah, had apparently migrated N and was counted with the 10 northern tribes (cf. 1 Chron 12:23-25; 2 Chron 15:9; 34:6). (mine: Re: 11:11-12).
3. The Adversaries. 11:14-28.
4. The prophecy of Ahijah. 11:29-40.
a. 11:37. “one tribe.” The ten northern tribes.
b. 11:40. “Shishak.” Sheshonk I, who reigned 945-924 B.C. and gave political asylum to Jeroboam. Later (in 925) he invaded Jerusalem, exacting heavy tribute from Judah (14:25-26.
5. The death of Solomon. 11:41-43.
a. 11:42. Solomon reigned over Jerusalem for forty years.
b. 11:43. Solomon died; his son, Rehoboam reigned in his place.
II. The Divided Kingdom. 12:1-22:53.
A. The rupture in the Kingdom. 12:1-24.
1. The request of the northern tribes. 12:1-4.
a. 12:1. “Shechem.” First mentioned in Gen 12:6, it was in the territory of Ephraim, near present day Nabius (see also Judg 9:1).
b. 12:2. Jeroboam. See 11:26-40. “Jeroboam, the son of Nebat,…also rebelled against the King (Solomon). He became the spokesman to present the grievances of the people to the king.
2. The reply of Rehoboam. 12:5-15
3. The revolt of the northern tribes. 12:16-24.
B. The reign of Jeroboam in Israel (931-910 B.C.). 12:25-14:20.
1. Establishing religious worship centers. 12:25-33.
a. 12:25. “Penuel.” Located E of the Jordan, it served to keep those tribes who lived in that area from being invaded by Rehoboam or Shishak (14:24).
b. 12:29. Jeroboam placed one golden calf in Bethel, which was on the road to Jerusalem and 11 mi N of the city, and the other calf in the northernmost part of his kingdom, in Dan.
c. 12:31. Jeroboam also infiltrated the priesthood with non-Levites.
d. 12:32. “a feast.” Probably Booths, observed one month later (Lev 23:34).
2. Encountering the man of God. 13:1-32.
a. 13:2. This prediction, naming “Josiah,” was fulfilled about 300 years later (2 Kings 23:15-20).
b. 13:32. “Samaria.” Later the capital of the 10 northern tribes and here to designate that entire area.
3. Elevating non-Levites to the priesthood. 13:33-34.
4. Experiencing his son’s sickness and Ahijah’s prophecy. 14:1-18.
5. Expiring. 14:19-20.
a. 14:19. Jeroboam made war and reigned. (mine: Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, reigned over the 10 tribes of the northern kingdom.)
b. 14:20. Jeroboam died, having reigned 22 years. Nadab, his son, reigned in his place.
C. The reign of Rehoboam in Judah (931-913 B.C.; 2 Chron 10:1-12:16). 14:21-31.
1. Apostasy in Judah. 14:21-24.
2. Attack by Shishak of Egypt. 14:25-28.
3. Death of Rehoboam. 14:29-31.
a. 14:30. There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually.
b. 14:31. Rehoboam died, and his son, Abijam ruled in his place.
D. The reign of Abijam (Abijah) in Judah. (913-911 B.C.; 2 Chron 13:1-22). 15:1-8.
E. The reign of Asa in Judah. (911-870 B.C.; 2 Chron 14:1-16:14). 15:9-24.
1. His reforms. 15:9-15.
2. His war with Baasha. 15:16-24.
F. The reign of Nabab in Israel (910-909 B.C.) 15:25-31.
G. The reign of Baasha in Israel (909-886 B.C.) 15:32-16:7.
H. The reign of Elah in Israel (886-885 B.C.) 16:8-14.
I. The reign of Zimri in Israel (885 B.C.) 16:15-20.
J. The reign of Omri in Israel (885-874 B.C.) 16:21-28.
K. The reign of Ahab in Israel (874-853 B.C.) 16:29-22:40.
1. The beginning of Ahab’s reign. 16:29-34.
2. Elijah’s prediction of drought. 17:1.
3. God’ provision for Elijah. 17:2-24.
4. Elijah’s challenge to the priests of Baal. 18:1-46.
5. Elijah’s flight to Horeb. 19:1-18.
6. Elijah’s appointment of Elisha. 19:19-21.
7. Ahab’s Aramean victories. 20:1-43.
8. Ahab’s desire to have Naboth’s vineyard. 21:1-29.
9. Ahab’s final battle. 22:1-40.
L. The reign of Jehoshaphat in Judah (873-848 B.C.; 2 Chron 17:1-20:37). 22:41-50.
M. The reign of Ahaziah in Israel (853 B.C.). 22:51-53.
Part 4. Video Details.
I. Video Overview: 1-2 Kings.
A. #Kings #BibleProject #BibleVideo
B. Overview: 1-2 Kings. Apr 2, 2016. BibleProject.
C. Watch our overview video on the books of 1-2 Kings, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. In Kings, David’s son Solomon leads Israel to greatness, only to fail and lead Israel to a civil war and ultimately towards destruction and exile.
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