Israel In Acts, 2:1-36, Pentecost, 33 A.D.

Video Title: Day Of Pentecost.

Article Title: Israel In Acts, 2:1-36, Pentecost, 33 A.D.


It has been fifty days since Passover. Notice in the video the prayer in the upper room (Acts 1:13) being from Matt 6:10, “Thy kingdom come.” Jews were still waiting for the Kingdom, not Heaven (Acts 1:3, 6), and were praying for “the Kingdom to come.” Notice that the words of those Jews were being spoken in the languages of the Jews who were in Jerusalem for the Feast of Pentecost (Acts 2:6), and that those in the upper room were men and women, totaling 120 Jewish believers in Christ (Acts 1:13-15). See foot of page for comment providers.

Deuteronomy 16:9-12

9 “You shall count seven weeks for yourself; you shall begin to count seven weeks from the time you begin to put the sickle to the standing grain. 10 Then you shall celebrate the Feast of Weeks to the Lord your God with a tribute of a freewill offering of your hand, which you shall give just as the Lord your God blesses you; 11 and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God, you and your son and your daughter and your male and female servants and the Levite who is in your town, and the stranger and the orphan and the widow who are in your midst, in the place where the Lord your God chooses to establish His name. 12 You shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and you shall be careful to observe these statutes.

Note: 16:10–12 the Feast of Weeks. Seven weeks later this second feast was celebrated. It was also called the “Feast of Harvest” (Ex. 23:16) or the “day of firstfruits” (Lev. 23:9–22; Num. 28:26–31) and later came to be known as “Pentecost” (Acts 2:1). With the grain harvest completed, this one-day festival was a time of rejoicing. The outpouring of the Holy Spirit, 50 days after the death of Christ at the Passover, was on Pentecost and gives special meaning to that day for Christians (cf. Joel 2:28–32; Acts 2:14–18). (MSB)

Acts 2:1-36. A Jewish Feast. Jews in town from many countries, hearing the truth Of Christ in their own languages. (Notes: MSB, unless otherwise noted).

Acts 2:1-4

The Day of Pentecost.

1 When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2 And suddenly there came from heaven a noise like a violent rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. 3 And there appeared to them tongues as of fire distributing themselves, and they rested on each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit was giving them utterance.

Note: 2:1. “Day of Pentecost.” “Pentecost” means “fiftieth” and refers to the Feast of Weeks (Ex. 34:22, 23) or Harvest (Lev. 23:16), which was celebrated 50 days after Passover in May/June (Lev. 23:15–22). It was one of 3 annual feasts for which the nation was to come to Jerusalem (see note on Ex. 23:14–19). At Pentecost, an offering of firstfruits was made (Lev. 23:20). The Holy Spirit came on this day as the firstfruits of the believer’s inheritance (cf. 2 Cor. 5:5; Eph. 1:11, 14). Those gathered into the church then were also the firstfruits of the full harvest of all believers to come after. “in one place.” The upper room mentioned in 1:13.

Note: 2:2. “a sound . . . as . . . mighty wind.” Luke’s simile described God’s action of sending the Holy Spirit. Wind is frequently used in Scripture as a picture of the Spirit (cf. Ezek. 37:9, 10; John 3:8).

Note: 2:3. The disciples could not comprehend the significance of the Spirit’s arrival without the Lord sovereignly illustrating what was occurring with a visible phenomenon. “tongues, as of fire.” Just as the sound, like wind, was symbolic, these were not literal flames of fire but supernatural indicators, like fire, that God had sent the Holy Spirit upon each believer. In Scripture, fire often denoted the divine presence (cf. Ex. 3:2–6). God’s use of a fire-like appearance here parallels what He did with the dove when Jesus was baptized (Matt. 3:11; Luke 3:16).

Note: 2:4. “all.” The apostles and the 120. Cf. Joel 2:28–32. “filled with the Holy Spirit.” In contrast to the baptism with the Spirit, which is the one-time act by which God places believers into His body (see notes on 1 Cor. 12:13), the filling is a repeated reality of Spirit-controlled behavior that God commands believers to maintain (see notes on Eph. 5:18). Peter and many others in Acts 2 were filled with the Spirit again (e.g., 4:8, 31; 6:5; 7:55) and so spoke boldly the Word of God. The fullness of the Spirit affects all areas of life, not just speaking boldly (cf. Eph. 5:19–33). “with other tongues.” Known languages (See Acts 2:6, 11 notes).

Acts 2:5-13. The Crowd’s Response.

Note: 2:5. Jews, devout men. Hebrew males who made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. They were expected to celebrate Pentecost (see note on v. 1) in Jerusalem, as part of observing the Jewish religious calendar. See note on Ex. 23:14–19.

Note: 2:6. “this sound.” The noise like gusty wind (v. 2), not the sound of the various languages. “speak in his own language.” As the believers were speaking, each pilgrim in the crowd recognized the language or dialect from his own country.

Note: 2:7. “Galileans.” Inhabitants of the mostly rural area of northern Israel around the Sea of Galilee. Galilean Jews spoke with a distinct regional accent and were considered to be unsophisticated and uneducated by the southern Judean Jews. When Galileans were seen to be speaking so many different languages, the Judean Jews were astonished.

Note: 2:9–11 The listing of specific countries and ethnic groups proves again that these utterances were known human languages.

Note: 2:9. “Parthians.” They lived in what is modern Iran. “Medes.” In Daniel’s time, they ruled with the Persians, but had settled in Parthia. “Elamites.” They were from the southwestern part of the Parthian Empire. “Mesopotamia.” This means “between the rivers” (the Tigris and Euphrates). Many Jews still lived there, descendants of those who were in captivity and who never returned to the land of Israel (cf. 2 Chr. 36:22, 23). “Judea.” All the region once controlled by David and Solomon, including Syria.

Note: 2:9, 10. “Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia.” All were districts in Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey.

Note: 2:10. “Egypt.” Many Jews lived there, especially in the city of Alexandria. The nation then covered the same general area as modern Egypt. “Libya adjoining Cyrene.” These districts were W of Egypt, along the North African coast. “Rome.” The capital of the Empire had a sizeable Jewish population, dating from the second century B.C. proselytes. “Gentile converts to Judaism.” Jews in Rome were especially active in seeking such converts.

Note: 2:11. “Cretans.” Residents of the island of Crete, off the southern coast of Greece. “Arabs.” Jews who lived S of Damascus, among the Nabatean Arabs (cf. Gal. 1:17). “we hear them speaking.” See note on v. 6. wonderful works of God. The Christians were quoting from the OT what God had done for His people (cf. Ex. 15:11; Pss. 40:5; 77:11; 96:3; 107:21). Such praises were often heard in Jerusalem during festival times.

Note: 2:13 new wine. A drink that could have made one drunk.

Acts 2:14-36. Peter’s Sermon.

Note: 2:14–40. After the Holy Spirit’s arrival, the first major event of church history was Peter’s sermon, which led to 3,000 conversions and established the church (vv. 41–47) (My note. These were Jews who came to saving faith in Christ. See 2:36’s Jewish context.)

Note (Mine): Consider the audience of Peter. Acts 2:14: they are Jews. Acts 2:16-21: the message is related to Jewish prophecy. Acts 2:22-24: they are Jews. Acts 2:25-35: the message is related to Jewish prophecy.

Note: 2:22–36. Here is the main body of Peter’s sermon, in which he presented and defended Jesus Christ as Israel’s Messiah.

Note (Mine): Verse 36 is key: “Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ—this Jesus whom you crucified.”

Note: 2:36. Peter summarizes his sermon with a powerful statement of certainty: the OT prophecies of resurrection and exaltation provide evidence that overwhelmingly points to the crucified Jesus as the Messiah. “both Lord and Christ.” Jesus is God as well as anointed Messiah (cf. Rom. 1:4; 10:9; 1 Cor. 12:3; Phil. 2:9, 11).

Note (Mine): The message on Pentecost was spoken by a Jew (The Apostle Peter), “to Jews,” who were in Jerusalem for one of three required Jewish feasts (Ex 23:14-17, Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, Tabernacles). The message was about a Jew, “Christ,” whom had been crucified after Jews in Jerusalem, whom had not come to faith in Christ as Messiah cried, “Crucify Him,” (Matt 27:22). It is important to understand that whenever a verse has the words, “the Jews,” it is important to understand whether “the Jews” relates to believing Jews or, whether it relates to unbelieving Jews. Have “the Jews accepted Christ” as Messiah, or have “the Jews not accepted Christ” as Messiah?

Note: 23:14–19 Requiring all males to be present for 3 specified feasts at a central sanctuary would have had a socially and religiously uniting effect on the nation. The men must trust the Lord to protect their landholdings while on pilgrimage to the tabernacle (cf. 34:23, 24). All 3 feasts were joyful occasions, being a commemoration of the Exodus (the Feast of Unleavened Bread), an expression of gratitude to God for all the grain He had provided (the Feast of Harvest), and a thanksgiving for the final harvest (the Feast of Ingathering). Alternative names appear in the biblical record for the second and third feasts: the Feast of Weeks (34:22) or Firstfruits (34:22; Acts 2:1), and the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths (Lev. 23:33–36). For additional discussions, see, Lev. 23:1–24:9; Num. 28, 29; Deut. 16. (Pentecost, Harvest, and Weeks are the same feast).

This article is part of a timeline study of the Book of Acts. Editing details are shown, as follows:

Translation Considerations. “The New American Standard Bible (NASB) translation was chosen for this, and other studies, because of two main reasons. First, the NASB capitalizes the first letter of pronouns that relate to God (Father, Son, Holy Spirit); not all Bible translations show that same respect for God. Second, the NASB has a history of correctness in translation.”

Comment Providers. BKC=The Bible Knowledge Commentary. DHC=David Hocking Commentary; HC=Holman Commentary; MSB=MacArthur Study Bible; MBC=Moody Bible Commentary; NAC=New American Commentary; NIV=NIV Study Bible; NKJV= New King James Study Bible; RLT=Robert L. Thomas Commentary; RC=Ryrie Commentary; RSB=Ryrie Study Bible; SRN=Scofield Reference Notes; WRC= Walvoord Commentary. Credentials for individual commentators can be found on my “About Sources” page.

Dates of scriptures come from the Scofield Study Bible, copyright 1909.

Video Details. Day of Pentecost HD. Gise Ríos.

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Author: Equipping

The Church is the Church, and Israel is Israel. The Church did not replace Israel, and is not spiritual Israel. In the New Testament, “church” and “Israel” are mentioned as being separate entities. In the New Testament “church” is mentioned 112 times; Israel is mentioned 79 times; both are mentioned as being separate entities The Kingdom “has not yet come,” and will not come until the Jewish bloodline of Israel accepts God’s chosen king (Deuteronomy 17:15), which will take place at the end of the Tribulation when the nation of Israel faces decimation and calls on Messiah, Christ, in faith, to save them (Zechariah 12:10). Individual salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22), and comes through Christ (John 14:6). Things are discussed in this website that relate to God’s creation, from “eternity to eternity,” and all that is addressed within those parameters. Consider Isaiah 43:13, “Even from eternity I am He, And there is no one who can rescue from My hand; I act, and who can reverse it?” The Moody Study Bible adds a comment: “God is the ruler of all, and there is nothing that can stand against Him. His will is irresistible. The Bible Knowledge Commentary adds this thought: “No one can reverse what God puts into action or thwart His plans.” The articles that are found in this site may relate to anything that is found in the Bible, from Genesis 1:1 to Revelation22.21, as well as anything else that may relate to the Bible.

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