Acts 2:38, “Repent,” metanoeó: to change one’s mind or purpose (about Christ).
Series Title. Israel In The Book Of Acts.
Video Title. Day of Pentecost.
Article Title. Acts 2:42. Which Teaching? Which Gospel?
I. Introduction. When I consider the opening video of this article, the thought that is brought to my mind is, “consider God.”
II. Consider the following verses that are foundational to the considerations of this article.
A. Acts 1:-8-9.8 “but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.” 9 And after He had said these things, He was lifted up while they were looking on, and a cloud received Him out of their sight.”
B. Acts 2:42. “They were continually devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer.”
III. Let us consider the gospel message that the Apostles learned from Christ. The meaning of Gospel is “good news.” In the following verses, we will see that the “gospel of the Kingdom” relates to Israel. Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven have the same meaning.
A. Let’s consider the Kingdom, as it relates to “of God” and “of Heaven.” First of all, the Kingdom will be “on earth,” and will be empowered by God, whom is in Heaven (Matt 6:10). Secondly, the Kingdom will be ruled by Christ, and relates to national Israel (Lk 1:32-33).
B. The Kingdom is the result of a promise between God and Israel, and is described in the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants. The Kingdom is not a frame of mind, or a thought process. The Kingdom is not in place at this time, but will come into being at the time that Christ returns to earth from Heaven at the end of the Tribulation (Mt 24:29-31, Rev 19:11-21, when Christ (King of Kings, Rev 19:16) sets up His 1,000 year reign, where He physically reigns upon the earth (Isa 2:3-4).
1. The Abrahamic Covenant is described as being a land, a people, and a blessing (Gen 12:1-3; 15:18-21; 17:7-8). Gentiles who bless Jews will also be recipients of God’s blessings for Jews (Gen 12:3). The land will extend from the Nile River in Egypt, to the Euphrates River in Iraq, and will be approximately ten times the size of current Israel.
2. The Davidic Covenant describes a Godly government that will rule over the “Kingdom Of God”(2 Sam 7:8-16).
3. Some of the conditions of the Kingdom are discussed in the prophecies of the Jewish prophet, Isaiah, whose prophecy came from God, to Isaiah, to Israel (Isa 1:1-3). Conditions that Isaiah prophesied, which relate to the time of the Kingdom are stated in the following verses: Isa 2:1-4; 4:1-6; 9:6-7; 11:6-9; 25:6-8; 26:1-21; 32:1-20; 35:1-10; 42:1-6; 43:1-7; 49:1-12; 52:13-53:12 (53:5 is a promise of God’s spiritual healing of disobedient Israel also see Ps 103:12); 56:1-8; 60:1-22; 62:1-12; 66:18-25.
4. When Christ was on earth, He taught the details of the “good news” of the Kingdom. Notice that the gospel of the Kingdom was taught to Jews. The Kingdom was said to be “near,” but not here(per Andy Woods). Had Israel accepted Christ as being the choice of God for the Kingdom (Deu 17:15), all of the promises of the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants would have immediately been fulfilled. Also, all of the conditions of the Kingdom, that Isaiah and over Jewish prophets had spoken to Israel, would have come to fruition.
a. Matthew 3:1-2. 1 Now in those days John the Baptist *came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, 2 “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
b. Matthew 4:17. From that time Jesus began to preach and say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
c. Matthew 10:5-7. 5 These twelve Jesus sent out after instructing them: “Do not go in the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter any city of the Samaritans; 6 but rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 7 And as you go, preach, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’
d. Mark 1:14-15. 14 Now after John had been taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of God, 15 and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel.”
e. Luke 8:1. 1 Soon afterwards, He began going around from one city and village to another, proclaiming and preaching the kingdom of God. The twelve were with Him,
f. Luke 10:8-9. 8 Whatever city you enter and they receive you, eat what is set before you; 9 and heal those in it who are sick, and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you.’ (vs 1, Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come.)
5. In addition to the teachings of Christ about the Kingdom, He also spoke to the Jews about the Law, which involved Jews treating others according to God’s will for their lives. Consider the teaching on the Sermon on the Mount, per Ryrie Study Bible.
6. The Sermon On The Mount (Matthew). Consider the Law.
a. The Picture of Kingdom Life (Mt 5:1-16).
b. The Precepts for Kingdom Life (Mt 5:17-48). The law of Moses (Mt 5:17-20). The law of reconciliation (Mt 5:23-26). The law of Adultery (Mt 5:27-30). The law of divorce (Mt 5:31-32). The law of oaths (Mt 5:33-37). The law of nonresistance (Mt 5:38-42). The law of love (Mt 5:43-48).
(1) Mt 5:40. If anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, let him have your coat also.
(2) Mt 5:41. Whoever forces you to go one mile, go with him two.
(3) Mt 5:42. Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you.
c. The Practice of Kingdom Life (Mt 6:1-7:12). In relation to almsgiving (Mt 6:1-4). In relation to prayer (Mt 6:5-15). In relation to fasting (Mt 6:16-18). In relation to money (6:19-24). In relation to anxiety (Mt 6:25-34). In relation to Judging [I say again, “in relation to judging” (Mt 7:1-5)]. In relation to prudence (Mt 7:6). In relation to prayer (Mt 7:7-11). In relation to others (Mt 7:12).
d. The Proof of Kingdom Life (Mt 7:13-29).
7. The Sermon On The Mount. Luke 6:20-49. Consider the Law. Notice that as we finish considering the Sermon on the Mount, that we are not bound by the Sermon on the Mount, or by the Law. Lk 18:22 was stated outside of the Sermon on the Mount.
a. Lk 6:30. Give to everyone who asks of you, and whoever takes away what is yours, do not demand it back.
b. Lk 6:38. Give, and it will be given to you. They will pour into your lap a good measure—pressed down, shaken together, and running over. For by your standard of measure it will be measured to you in return.”
c. Lk 18:18-23. It is at this time in the teaching of Christ about the Kingdom and the Law that the opportunity arises to discuss personal salvation.
(1) Lk 18:18 A ruler questioned Him, saying, “Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?”
(2) Lk 18:20 (Jesus said) “You know the commandments……”
(3) Lk 18:21 (the ruler said) “I have kept all these from my youth.”
(4) Lk 18:22 (Jesus said) “One thing that you still lack, sell all that you have and follow Me.”
(5) Lk 18:23 (The man) “was very sad, for he was extremely rich.”
d. RSB note: Lk 18:22. Apparently the man had kept the laws of vs 20, but Jesus saw his attachment to material things. Rather than admit this, the man turned his back on Christ’s help.
e. BKC note: Lk 18:21-22. The reasoning of Jesus was clear: (1) one must keep the law perfectly in order to inherit eternal life (cf. James 2:10). (2) Only God was good — truly righteous. (3) Therefore, nobody can obtain eternal life by following the Law (cf. Rom 3:20; Gal 2:21, 3:21). (4) The only course of action left to an individual is to follow Jesus in order to obtain eternal life.
f. BKC note: Mt 19:16-22. The young man affirmed he had kept all these things, but he still sensed a lack (Mt 19:20, “The young man *said to Him, All these things I have kept; what am I still lacking?”). Whether he had truly kept these commands, only God knows. The young man believed he had, and yet he knew something was missing in his life. Nothing more was written about this young man; probably, he never left all and followed Christ. He loved his money more than God, and thus he violated even the first commandment (Ex 20:3).
g. It is important to remember that in the midst of the teaching of Christ for national Israel to accept Him as Messiah for them to enter the Kingdom [Mt 3:2,”repent, for the kingdom of God is at hand.” Luke 13:3. “I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.”], Christ also taught that only born again, believing Jews, would be able to enter the Kingdom, which is personal salvation [Jn 3:3, “Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he can not see the kingdom of God.” Jn 3:16, “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.”].
h. Mt 3:2, “Repent.” (metanoeó: to change one’s mind or purpose…about Christ).
8. The Applicability Of The Law.
a. Lev 23:1-2. “Speak to the sons of Israel”.
a. Ps 147:19. “He declares His words to Jacob, His statutes and His ordinances to Israel.”
IV. Let Us Consider Salvation. For National Israel. For Individuals.
A. It is important to know that all verses are “for us,” but not all verses apply “to us” (per Andy Woods).
1. Consider two verses that discuss salvation.
a. Luke 13:3. “I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.”
b. John 3:16. “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.”
c. Both of the above verses relate to salvation, but they are “miles apart” in application. Lk 13:3 relates to the national salvation of Israel. John 3:16 relates to personal salvation, of everybody, even Jews.
2. We will discuss the determining factors of each of the above two verses (Lk 13:3 and John 3:16).
B. Salvation For National Israel.
1. The synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke tell of Israel’s national salvation. Christ not only gave the Jews a refresher on the Kingdom, He also spoke to them on the Law. Christ was qualified to speak on the Law because He was totally compliant with the requirements of the Law (Heb 4:15); yet, He fulfilled the law (Mt 5:17).
a. Heb 4:15. “For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin.”
b. Mt 5:17. “Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill.”
2. The law was given only to Israel. Consider Ps 147:19. “He declares His words to Jacob, His statutes and His ordinances to Israel.”
3. The offer of the Kingdom to Israel was set aside after Christ was rejected by the Jews, and will not be offered again until the time of the Tribulation (Mt 23:37-39; Zech 12:10).
C. Salvation For Individuals.
1. The Gospel of John (the good news of John’s gospel) shows Christ’s teaching on personal salvation, of Jews and Gentiles. Consider: Jn 1:7, 9, 11-13, 29. 3:3, 6-8, 15-18. 6:40, 10:27-30. 14:1-6, 16-20. 16:7-15. 17:3, 21-26. 20:31. John 3:3 states that in order for anyone to be allowed into the Kingdom, they must be born again. The new birth is also stated by the Apostle Paul, in 2 Cor 5:17, and in Ezekiel 36:24-29. The time of the Kingdom, which will take place on earth after the Tribulation, and will not have anyone entering it without having been born again (John 3:3; Mt 24:40-41…which is not the rapture; and Mt 25:34). Old Testament saints will be resurrected at the end of the Tribulation, and will enter the Kingdom (Dan 12:1-3). Church age saints will be raptured and resurrected, and will return to earth with Christ from Heaven to enter the Kingdom (Rev 19:11-21). Deceased Tribulation saints (those who accept Christ during the Tribulation) will be resurrected at the end of the Tribulation and will enter the Kingdom (Rev 20:4). Living Tribulation saints (those who accept Christ during the Tribulation) will enter the Kingdom in their living bodies (Mt 24:40-41; Mt 25:34). The Kingdom will last for a millennium (1,000 years, Rev 20:4). Following the millennium, all whom have been born again will enter into the eternal state of the new Heaven, new Earth and new Jerusalem (Rev 21:1-2).
2. Included in the synoptic gospels, Christ also taught about His death, burial and resurrection, per Mt 16:21: “From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day (notice, “third day”).”
D. The Teaching Of The Gospels.
1. The Gospel of the Kingdom was taught until the day that Christ ascended to Heaven (Acts 1:1-7).
2. The Gospel of the death, burial and resurrection of Christ began being taught by the Apostles on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:22-36), as is shown in 1 Cor 15:1-8), will be taught until Christ sets foot on earth at the end of the Tribulation (NAC).
a. 1 Corinthians 15:1-8. 1 Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received, in which also you stand, 2 by which also you are saved, if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless you believed in vain. 3 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 4 and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, 5 and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 6 After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep; 7 then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles; 8 and last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also.
b. The key message of the New Testament is “Christ and Him crucified:” Acts 2:36, 1 Cor 2:2).
3. The Gospel of the Kingdom will not be taught again until the time of the Tribulation (Mt 24:14), when it will be preached “as a testimony to all the nations.” In the mean time, it is incumbent upon believers in Christ to teach the gospel of the death, burial and resurrection of Christ (1 Cor 15:1-8). Therefore, the teaching of the Apostles would find its foundational backing on “Christ and Him crucified,” and not on the Law or the Kingdom. However, Scripture will show that the Apostles made references to the Law and the Kingdom, when the time was appropriate to draw unsaved Jews to saving faith in Christ.
E. The Teaching Of The Apostles.
1. Acts 2:46 tells that the earliest Christians, who were also Jews, continued in temple worship. They also met in their homes as born again believers in Christ: “Day by day continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart,”
2. The Apostles would continue keeping the feasts (Acts 20:6): “We sailed from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas within five days; and there we stayed seven days”(Ex 12:17). While at the Feasts, the Apostles would explain the fulfilment of Christ in each of the festivals, as follows:
a. Passover (Ex 12:1-14; Mt 26:17-20) – The Death Of Christ (1 Cor 5:7).
b. Unleavened Bread (Ex 12:15-20) – The Sinlessness Of Christ (1 Cor 5:8).
c. First Fruits (Lev 23:9-14; Num 28:26) – The Resurrection Of Christ (1 Cor 15:23).
d. Pentecost (Deu 16:9-12; Acts 2:1) – The Outpouring Of The Spirit Of Christ (Acts 1:5, 2:4).
e. Trumpets (Num 29:1-6) – Israel’s Regathering By Christ (Mt 24:31).
f. Atonement (Lev 23:26-32; Heb 9:7) – The Substitutionary Sacrifice By Christ (Rom 11:26).
g. Booths/Tabernacles/Sukkot/Ingathering (Neh 8:13-18; Jn 7:2) – The Rest And Reunion With Christ (Zech 14:16-19).
V. Video Details. Day of Pentecost. ewlady. Excerpt from the movie “Acts of the Apostles.”
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