A. Title: Mathew Chapter 5.
B. Data: B.Data: LuisetReneeandBill
II. Introduction. (Mathew Chapter 5). Dr. John F. Walvoord (A.B., M.A., Th. B., Th. M., Th. D., D.D., Litt. D., 1910-2002). The moral principles of the Kingdom.
A. 5:1. Significance and setting of the sermon. The purpose of Matthew to present the truth relating Jesus as the King and the message of the kingdom is the guiding principle in placing the Sermon on the Mount here so early in Matthew’s gospel. Many events recorded later in the gospel actually occurred before the Sermon on the Mount. The Sermon on the Mount is given priority because it is a comprehensive statement of the moral principles relating to the kingdom which Jesus proclaimed. As Kelly comments, it was designed “to counteract the earthly views of the people of Israel
B. In placing this discourse early in Matthew, the intent is plainly to set forth the main principles of Christ’s teaching, which are subsequently rejected in Matthew 8-12. This rejection in turn led to the second major discourse in Matthew 13 on the mysteries of the kingdom, or the age intervening between the first and second advents of Christ. Matthew’s third major discourse, in Matthew 24-25, dealt with the end time preceding the second coming. These three major discourses should be contrasted to the fourth discourse found in John’s gospel, 13-17, dealing specifically with the spiritual character of the present age in which God would call out His church. Matthew’s gospel is, therefore, comprehensive in presenting the three major discourses relating to kingdom truth, and is, as Kelly expresses it, given in “dispensational” order.
C. That the Sermon on the Mount presents ethical content all agree. That it delineates the gospel that Jesus Christ died and rose again, that it presents justification by faith, or is suitable to point an unbeliever to salvation in Christ is plainly not the intent of this message.
D.The Sermon on the Mount, as a whole, is not church truth precisely. A. W. Pink holds, “Its larger part was a most searching exposition of the spirituality of the Law and the refutation of the false teaching of the elders.” It falls short of presenting the complete rule of life expounded at a greater length in the epistles, and it is not intended to delineate justification by faith or the gospel of salvation. On the other hand, the Sermon on the Mount is clearly intended to be a definitive statement of Christ’s teaching and should not be pushed aside lightly by unnecessary stricture which would relegate it to unimportant truth. If these various limiting approaches are inadequate, what is the true approach?
E. As in every text of Scripture, the truth presented must be first of all seen in its context. In the gospels, Jesus was presenting Himself as the prophesied King, and the kingdom He was offering is the prophesied kingdom. Those who are premillenarian can understand this as referring to the earthly kingdom predicted in the Old Testament. Although Jesus, in His teaching, did not spell out all that was revealed in the Old Testament, He clearly presented Himself as the prophesied King, the Son of David, who had the right to reign on earth. It is quite evident that the Jews, while they wanted deliverance from the Romans and fulfillment of the material blessings promised in the millennium, were quite unprepared to accept the view that the millennial kingdom has spiritual implications. It was to be a rule of righteousness as well as a rule of peace. It demanded much of subjects as well as providing much for them. The political character of the kingdom was not seriously questioned by the Jews, who anticipated that their Messiah would bring deliverance to them. Because of their neglect of the spiritual and moral principles involved, Christ necessarily emphasized these in the Sermon on the Mount. The Sermon accordingly must be understood in this eschatological context. Preferable is the view that Jesus delivered this sermon as Matthew indicated, although probably He repeated many times the truths in the Sermon on the Mount, or delivered the same sermon more than once to different groups (cf. Lk 6:20-49). Here, however, He spoke directly to His disciples, probably the inner circle. But during the discourse, apparently many others joined the crowd, as there is reference to “the people” in Matthew 7:28, which would imply a large crowd.
F. A careful reading of what Christ said makes it obvious, however, that the principles of the kingdom are far more than merely rules for a future millennium. Proceeding as they do from the nature of God and nature of morality and spiritual truth, many of the statements of Christ in the Sermon on the Mount are general in character, and the appeal is that inasmuch as these general truths must be accepted, their particular application to the kingdom may be taken for granted. In the progress of this narrative, Jesus not only proclaimed lofty general principles, but also made particular applications to current situations. This address can hardly be viewed as only prophetic, and it is clear that Jesus expected immediate response from His hearers, not simply acquiescence that He was telling the truth. Accordingly, the study of the Sermon on the Mount yields its treasures to those who analyze each text, determining its general meaning, its present application, and its relation to the future kingdom program. Problems of interpretation in most instances vanish easily when viewed from this prospective.
G. Beatitudes, 5:2-12. introductory verses, picture Jesus seated, imply Christ’s role as a Lawgiver or Rabbi. The Beatitudes pronounce those blessed, or happy, who fulfill these six standards of the kingdom in character and experience: those poor in spirit, or consciously dependent on God; those who mourn; those who are meek, or humble; those who thirst after righteousness; those who are merciful; pure in spirit; and who are peacemakers, although persecuted for righteousness’ sake, are proper disciples and subjects of the kingdom. Through verse 10, these are addressed as “they,” in contrast to “ye” in verses 11-12. Here is illustrated present application of general truth. The disciples were to experience persecution and false accusation. They are exhorted to rejoice in that day because they share persecution similar to that of prophets of old and because they will have great reward in heaven. It is of interest that these words addressed to those living in that generation promised them reward in heaven rather than in the future millennial kingdom. This is realistic, of course, because they would ultimately move into the church with its heavenly destiny and reward.
H. Influence of true disciples, 5:13-16. In verses 13-16, disciples are compared to salt and a lamp. Salt, which has lost its salty character, is utterly useless. While salt can preserve and flavor almost any food, it is useless to add good salt to bad, and salt without flavor should be thrown away. So disciples, without true moral character and spiritual commitment to the King, are useless in the kingdom of heaven. It also implies the rottenness of the world, which needs the preservative of the salt. Likewise, disciples should be like a light or lamp, which, if it is going to fulfill its function, must be on a lampstand and not hidden under a bushel. The disciples were to be like a city set on a hill, and to let their light shine. The result would be that they would not attract men to themselves but would glorify the Father in heaven. The implication of this passage is that only those who have experienced conversion and transformation by the grace of God can be true citizens of the kingdom of heaven. The same thought was expressed to Nicodemus in John 3, when Jesus said, “Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God” (John 3:5). What John describes as casual, new birth or new life, Matthew considers as result, new morality, new character, new witness. Both demand genuineness to be a true subject of the kingdom of heaven.
III. Key Verse Examinations. Ryrie Study Bible, 1986 (Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Th. M., Th. D., Ph. D., Litt. D., 1925-2016).
A. 5:1. The sermon on the mount does not present the way of salvation, but the way of righteous living for those who are in God’s family, contrasting the new Way with the “old one” of the scribes and the pharisees. For the Jews of Christ’s day this message was a detailed explanation of “Repent” (3:2, 4:17). It was also an elaboration of the spirit of the law (5:17, 21-22, 27-28). For all of us it is a detailed revelation of the righteousness of God, and its principles are applicable to the children of God today.
B. 5:3-12. The “Beatitudes” (“Blessed ” means “happy”) describe the inner qualities of a follower of Christ, and promise him blessings in the future. They contrast sharply with the characteristics of the Pharisees, who were proud, thinking they had already attained righteousness.
C. 5:13. “salt” preserves, creates thirst, and cleanses.
IV. Purposes of Matthew. Christ in the Scriptures, Dr. Charles L. Quarles (M. Div., Ph. D.).
Matthew, as a Jew, unashamedly shapes his account about Jesus’ life so it is understood by a Jewish audience. His goal is to convince his peers that the King of kings has come. With this in mind, he uses terms and names that Jews will resonate with. By quoting more passages from the Old Testament than any other New Testament writer, he attempts to validate that Jesus is indeed the promised Messiah. No less than 12 times Matthew presents Jesus as Israel’s Messianic King (1:23; 2:2, 6; 3:17; 4:15–17; 21:5, 9; 22:44, 45; 26:64; 27:11, 27–37).
V. Kingdom of Heaven vs Kingdom of God.
J. Dwight Pentecost (Th. B., Th., D., 1915-2014) Things To Come, p 434.
In the Gospel according to Matthew, this kingdom is designated in the main as the kingdom of heaven, whereas the Kingdom of God is mentioned but a few times. Matthew was writing to the Jews who had a peculiar reverence for the name “God”–mark this, in spite of their most evident lack of perception of the true nature of the kingdom—and would easily understand the meaning of “the kingdom of heaven.” Mark and Luke, on the other hand, are written to Gentiles, so they use the phrase “kingdom of God” rather than the other. The kingdom is characterized as the kingdom of heaven because it is patterned after heaven and its perfection. Reference is also made in this name to the eternal and lasting value of this dominion. Furthermore, there is involved the thought of the heavenly origin and source of the kingdom, the God of heaven being He who will set it up. The name “kingdom of God” is employed because it points to the spiritual character of the reign and dominion. The Glory of God is its chief and sole object. Christ’s work in which He seeks only to glorify His Father is complete when God is glorified. This is the aim and purpose of the kingdom of God.
VI. Parting thoughts.
Whereas Nicodemus (John Chapter 3) lived in the “Kingdom of Heaven,” where God prevented Jupiter from bumping into Mars, Jesus told him the only way that he could see “the Kingdom of God” (John 3:3) enter the kingdom of God (John 3:5) he would have to be born again. The Kingdom of Heaven relates to a physical place, which is God’s designed creation; the Kingdom of God relates to a spiritual relationship between mankind and God through Jesus (John 3:8), whereby born again individuals will be taken by Jesus to spend eternity with Him away from this earth (John 14:2-6; Rev 4:1-4). More will be discussed on the subject of heaven, when we consider” the new heaven, new earth, and new Jerusalem” (Rev 21:1-2).
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