Israel In Isaiah, 3:1-4:1, 760 B.C., Notes
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The Book of Isiah is about a prophecy that was given by God to Isaiah, who was a Jewish prophet who, in turn, spoke God’s prophecy to Jewish people about Jewish circumstances and situations.
Isaiah 1:1, “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz concerning Judah and Jerusalem, which he saw during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.”
The Book Of Isaiah.
Purpose of Writing: The Prophet Isaiah was primarily called to prophesy to the Kingdom of Judah. Judah was going through times of revival and times of rebellion. Judah was threatened with destruction by Assyria and Egypt, but was spared because of God’s mercy. Isaiah proclaimed a message of repentance from sin and hopeful expectation of God’s deliverance in the future. (gotquestions.org)
Translation Considerations. “The New American Standard Bible (NASB) translation was chosen for this, and other studies, because of two main reasons. First, the NASB capitalizes the first letter of pronouns that relate to God (Father, Son, Holy Spirit); not all Bible translations show that same respect for God. Second, the NASB has a history of correctness in translation.”
Comment Providers. BKC=The Bible Knowledge Commentary. DHC=David Hocking Commentary; HC=Holman Commentary; MSB=MacArthur Study Bible; MBC=Moody Bible Commentary; NAC=New American Commentary; NIV=NIV Study Bible; NKJV= New King James Study Bible; RLT=Robert L. Thomas Commentary; RC=Ryrie Commentary; RSB=Ryrie Study Bible; SRN=Scofield Reference Notes; WRC= Walvoord Commentary. Credentials for individual commentators can be found on my “About Sources” page.
Dates of scriptures come from The Scofield Study Bible, copyright 1909.
Introduction. Isaiah 3:1-4:1. The Lord’s indictment against, and judgment of, Jerusalem and Judah continued. (MSB)
Text, in full. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Isaiah+3%3A1-4%3A1&version=NASB
For behold, the Lord GOD of hosts is going to remove from Jerusalem and Judah
Both supply and support, the whole supply of bread
And the whole supply of water;
Note. 3:1. “remove.” Through Nebuchadnezzar (see 2 Kings 24:15-16). “supply and support.” Both words indicate something one leans on. (RSB)
Note. 3:1. the Lord (136) Adonay: Lord, the proper name of God. GOD (3068) Yahweh: the proper name of the God of Israel. https://biblehub.com/lexicon/isaiah/3-1.htm
2 The mighty man and the warrior,
The judge and the prophet,
The diviner and the elder,
3 The captain of fifty and the honorable man,
The counselor and the expert artisan,
And the skillful enchanter.
Note. 3:1–3 “Takes away . . . expert enchanter.” God’s judgment was to include a removal of the people’s leadership. (MSB)
4 And I will make mere lads their princes,
And capricious children will rule over them,
5 And the people will be oppressed,
Each one by another, and each one by his neighbor;
The youth will storm against the elder
And the inferior against the honorable.
Note. 3:4-5. (children . . . honorable.) Inexperience in government was to lead to degeneration and irresponsibility at every level of national life. (MSB)
6 When a man lays hold of his brother in his father’s house, saying,
“You have a cloak, you shall be our ruler,
And these ruins will be under your charge,”
7 He will protest on that day, saying,
“I will not be your healer,
For in my house there is neither bread nor cloak;
You should not appoint me ruler of the people.”
Note. 3:6-7. “let these ruins . . . ruler of the people.” Conditions of anarchy were to be so bad that no one would accept a position of authority over the people. (MSB)
“For Jerusalem has stumbled and Judah has fallen,
Because their speech and their actions are against the Lord,
To rebel against His glorious presence.”
Note. 3:8 Jerusalem . . . Judah. The fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. was only a partial fulfillment of this prophecy. The final fulfillment awaits the times just prior to Christ’s second coming. against the LORD. The root of Zion’s problem surfaces: overt rebellion against the Lord. The people sinned shamelessly; they made no effort to conceal it (3:9).(MSB)
Forward Note: 3:10–15 This oracle against Judah’s leaders is in three parts: (1) an affirmation that God repays good and evil (vv. 10, 11); (2) an accusation that Israel’s leaders were leading people astray (v. 12); (3) a divine lawsuit against the leaders for exploiting their subjects (vv. 13–15; see 1:23). (NKJV)
9 The expression of their faces bears witness against them,
And they display their sin like Sodom;
They do not even conceal it.
Woe to them!
For they have brought evil on themselves.
10 Say to the righteous that it will go well with them,
For they will eat the fruit of their actions.
11 Woe to the wicked! It will go badly with him,
For what he deserves will be done to him.
Note. 3:9. Considered a horribly sinful city (1:9), Sodom had been destroyed by God (Gen. 19). Yet Judeans were parading their defiance against God just like the Sodomites. (NKJV)
Note. 3:10. “eat the fruit.” Compare this idea with 1:19. (NKJV)
Note. 3:11. paid back for what their hands have done. Cf. Pr 26:27 and note; Gal 6:7–9 and note on 6:7.(NIV)
“O My people! Their oppressors are children,
And women rule over them.
O My people! Those who guide you lead you astray
And confuse the direction of your paths.
Note. 3:12. “children . . . women.” Children and women were considered ill-suited for governmental leadership, so they figuratively depicted the incompetent rulers. (MSB)
13 The Lord arises to contend,
And stands to judge the people.
14 The Lord enters into judgment with the elders and princes of His people,
“It is you who have devoured the vineyard;
The plunder of the poor is in your houses.
15 “What do you mean by crushing My people
And grinding the face of the poor?”
Declares the Lord God of hosts.
Note. vs 14. “vineyard.” The spoiling of the vineyard by the leaders amounts to their inequities in ruling the nation. Isaiah gave a more detailed comparison of God’s people to a vineyard in 5:1–7. (MSB)
16 Moreover, the Lord said, “Because the daughters of Zion are proud
And walk with heads held high and seductive eyes,
And go along with mincing steps
And tinkle the bangles on their feet,
17 Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs,
And the Lord will make their foreheads bare.”
Note. “daughters of Zion.” When women cultivate beauty for beauty’s sake, they thereby reflect the moral decay of the nations and detract from the glory of God. Rather than emphasizing outward apparel and activities (vv. 16–24), ladies should cultivate the beauty of the inner person (1 Tim. 2:9, 10; 1 Pet. 3:3, 4). mincing as they go. Ornamental chains about the ankles necessitated shorter steps and produced tinkling sounds to attract attention. (MSB)
Isaiah 3:18-23, “18 In that day the Lord will take away the beauty of their anklets, headbands, crescent ornaments, 19 dangling earrings, bracelets, veils, 20 headdresses, ankle chains, sashes, perfume boxes, amulets, 21 finger rings, nose rings, 22 festal robes, outer tunics, cloaks, money purses, 23 hand mirrors, undergarments, turbans and veils.
Note. vs 18, “in that day.” The Day of the Lord. (See note on Isaiah 2:12). (RSB)
24 Now it will come about that instead of sweet perfume there will be putrefaction;
Instead of a belt, a rope;
Instead of well-set hair, a plucked-out scalp;
Instead of fine clothes, a donning of sackcloth;
And branding instead of beauty.
25 Your men will fall by the sword
And your mighty ones in battle.
26 And her gates will lament and mourn,
And deserted she will sit on the ground.
Note. 16-26. The fashionable women, seeking to lure other women’s husbands with their imported luxurious dress, would soon be destitute (cf. 1 Peter 3:3-4). (RSB)
Isaiah 4:1, For seven women will take hold of one man in that day, saying, “We will eat our own bread and wear our own clothes, only let us be called by your name; take away our reproach!”
Note. 4:1. “seven women . . . one man.” In the day of the Lord (see note on 2:12), He will judge wicked women indirectly by allowing a slaughtering of males, thereby producing a shortage of husbands. (MSB)
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